A Description of the Professional Practice of Certified Public Accountants
.01 Certified public accountants practice in the broad field of accounting.
.02 Accounting is a discipline which provides financial and other information essential to the efficient conduct and evaluation of the activities of any organization.
.03 The information which accounting provides is essential for (1) effective planning, control, and decision-making by management, and (2) discharging the accountability of organizations to investors, creditors, government agencies, taxing authorities, association members, contributors to welfare institutions, and others.
.04 Accounting includes the development and analysis of data, the testing of their validity and relevance, and the interpretation and communication of the resulting information to intended users. The data may be expressed in monetary or other quantitative terms, or in symbolic or verbal forms.
.05 Some of the data with which accounting is concerned are not precisely measurable, but necessarily involve assumptions and estimates as to the present effect of future events and other uncertainties. Accordingly, accounting requires not only technical knowledge and skill, but even more important, disciplined judgment, perception, and objectivity.
.06 Within this broad field of accounting, certified public accountants are the identified professional accountants. They provide leadership in accounting research and education. In the practice of public accounting CPAs bring competence of professional quality, independence, and a strong concern for the usefulness of the information and advice they provide, but they do not make management decisions.
.07 The professional quality of their services is based upon experience and the requirements for the CPA certificate—education and examination—and upon the ethical and technical standards established and enforced by their profession.
.08 CPAs have a distinctive role in auditing financial statements submitted to investors, creditors, and other interested parties, and in expressing independent opinions on the fairness of such statements. This distinctive role has inevitably encouraged a demand for the opinions of CPAs on a wide variety of other representations, such as compliance with rules and regulations of government agencies, sales statistics under lease and royalty agreements, and adherence to covenants in indentures. [Revised, July 1997, to reflect conforming changes necessary due to the issuance of Statement on Auditing Standards No. 58.]
.09 The audit of financial statements requires CPAs to review many aspects of an organization's activities and procedures. Consequently they can advise clients of needed improvements in internal control and make constructive suggestions on financial, tax, and other operating matters. [Revised, July 1997, to reflect conforming changes necessary due to the issuance of Statement on Auditing Standards No. 58.]
.10 In addition to furnishing advice in conjunction with their independent audits of financial statements, CPAs are engaged to provide objective advice and consultation on various management problems. Many of these involve information and control systems and techniques, such as budgeting, cost control, profit planning, internal reporting, automatic data processing, and quantitative analysis. CPAs also assist in the development and implementation of programs approved by management. [Revised, July 1997, to reflect conforming changes necessary due to the issuance of Statement on Auditing Standards No. 58.]
.11 Among the major management problems depending on the accounting function is compliance with tax requirements. An important part of the practice of CPAs includes tax planning and advice, preparation of tax returns, and representation of clients before government agencies.
.12 CPAs also participate in conferences with government agencies such as the Securities and Exchange Commission, and with other interested parties, such as bankers.
.13 Like other professionals, CPAs are often consulted on business, civic, and other problems on which their judgment, experience, and professional standards permit them to provide helpful advice and assistance.
.14 The complexities of an industrial society encourage a high degree of specialization in all professions. The accounting profession is no exception. Its scope is so wide and varied that many individual CPAs choose to specialize in particular types of service.
.15 Although their activities may be diverse, all CPAs have demonstrated basic competence of professional quality in the discipline of accounting. It is this which unites them as members of one profession, and provides a foundation for extension of their services into new areas.